Meghalaya Board Of School Education (MBOSE)

Meghalaya Board Of School Education (MBOSE)

Meghalaya Board Class 10th Syllabus

ADDITIONAL ENGLISH

I. PROSE
Pieces to be read:
1. A High Drive – L. P. Hartley
2. War – Luigi Pirandello
3. Out of Business – R. K. Narayan
4. The Postmaster – R. Tagore
5. The Lady or the Tiger? – Frank R. Stockton
II. POETRY
Pieces to be read:
1. The Education of Nature – William Wordsworth
2. Swimmers – Louis Untermeyer
3. The Man with the Hoe – Edwin Markham
4. If – Rudyard Kipling
5. A River – A. K. Ramanuja

III. PLAY
– A Midsummer Night’s Dream (Macmillan)
IV. COMPOSITION
Contents:
1. One Word Substitution
2. Amplification
3. Substance Writing
4. Paraphrasing from the Play
5. Advertisement
6. Picture Composition

ASSAMESE (MIL)

I. PROSE
Pieces to be read:
1. Chatra jibon aru smaj sewa – Deinswar Neog
2. Bharatiya Sanskriti – Hem Baruah
3. Asomor jonogosthir gathoni aru sanskrity – Abdus Sattar
4. Nuton arn saptados satikar bouddhik biplob – Dr. Kulendu Pathak
II. POETRY
Pieces to be read:
1. Bor geet – Sri Sri Madhadev
2. Zikir – Ajain Fakir
3. Mor desh manuhor desh – Debakanta Baruah
4. Drisyantor – Harekrishna Deka
III. RAPID READER

Mur Saisab, Mur Kaisor by Bhobendra Nath Saikia
IV. GRAMMAR
Pieces to be read:
Sandhi
Nattwa Aru Shattwa Bidhi
Samasa (Digu Samasa, Bahubrihi Samasa, Abyaieebhab Samasa)
Pratyaya (Tadhit Pratyaya, Stri Pratayaya)
Pad Prakaran
Karak
V. COMPOSITION
Pieces to be read:
1. Make sentences with Phrases and Idioms
2. Opposite words
3. One word for a group of words
4. Similar words, having different meanings
5. Amplification
6. Letter writing
VI. ESSAY WRITING
Types of Essay:
Adarsha Mulak
Bhraman Mulak
Jibani Mulak
Barnana Mulak

BENGALI (MIL)

I. PROSE
Pieces to be read:
1. Guptadhan – by Rabindranath Tagore
2. Adorini – by Prabathkumar Mukhopadhyay
3. Tota Kahini – by Sayad Mujtaba Ali
II. POETRY
Pieces to be read:
1. Gramyachhabi – by Girindramohini Dasi
2. Abar Asibo Phire – by Jiibananda Das
3. Rabindranath – by Achintyakumar Sen
III. RAPID READER
– Shrikanta O Indranath by Sharatchandra Chottopadhyay
IV. GRAMMAR
Pieces to be read:
1. Definition – apinihiti, abhishruti, swaraagam, borno biparjay, samas
2. Samas o tar chhoyti prokar (samas nirnoy)
3. Bagdhara
4. Ek kothay prokash
5. Somochaarito bhinnarthak shobdo
V. COMPOSITION
Pieces to be read:
1. Comprehension
2. Prabandha Rachana or picture composition/story writing (for blind students)

GARO (MIL)

I. PROSE & POETRY
Pieces to be read:
1. Rev. Thangkan K. Sangma – Lindrid D. Shira
2. Jatni Nisan, Git aro Chin – Brucellish K. Sangma
3. Meghalayani Sam Bolrang aro Do∙o Matrang – T. T. C. Marak
4. Sonaram R. Sangma – Dr. Milton S. Sangma
5. Chadambeni Salrang – Lindrid D. Shira
II. POETRY
Pieces to be read:
1. Ang’ Chakki – Evelyn R. Marak
2. Saljong Tasin Me∙chik – Monensing R. Sangma
3. Pring – Surendra S. Marak
4. Basako – Jonmoni D. Shira
5. Da∙al – Rev. Gilbert K. Marak
III. RAPID READER
– Skul Master (Dakmesokani) – L. D. Shira
IV. GRAMMAR
Pieces to be read:
Bak – I
Phrase
Clause
Bak – III
1. Verb – Ma∙arang, Predicateko Chu∙sokatgiparang, Mood, Participle, Verbal Noun,
Verbal Adjective aro Tense.
2. Adjective – Ma∙arang aro Tosusaani
3. Adverb – Ma∙arang aro Tosusaani, Napsikgipa Adverbrang

Recommended textbook:
– A∙chik Grammar – E. G. Phillips
V. COMPOSITION
i) A∙chik Composition – K. M. Momin
ii) A∙chik Kattarang – W. K. Sangma
VI. ESSAY/COMPREHENSION
PRESCRIBED TEXTBOOKS:
1. Prose & Poetry
– Poraiani Ki·tap X
– Tura Book Room, Tura, Meghalaya.

HINDI (MIL)

I. PROSE
Pieces to be read:
1. Shahid Bakri – by Ayodhya Prasad Goyellia
2. Bade Sapne Dekhe – by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
3. Har Ki Jeet – by Sudarshan
4. Tiruwalluwar – by Mansingh Verma
5. Neelkanth – by Mahadevi Varma
6. Ped Ki Baat – by Jagaddish Chandra Basu
II. POETRY
Pieces to be read:
1. Is Matti Ko Naman Karen – by Mansingh Verma
2. Vishwa Nagrik Bane – by Vidhichandra Patwari
3. Teen Kundaliya – by Giridhar
4. Baal Leela – by Surdas
5. Uddyami Nar – by Ramdhari Singh Dinkar
6. Satpura Ke Ghane Jungle – by Bhawani Prasad Mishra
III. RAPID READER
– Sanchayan (NCERT) Part-II
IV. GRAMMAR & COMPOSITION
Pieces to be read:
1. Sandhiyan-Vyanjan, Visarga, Tatha Hindi Ki Sandhiyan
2. Padhvichar Aur Unpadho Ke Bhed (B)
3. Kriya Ka Roob Parivartan Kalo Aur Vidhiyomein
4. Kriya Ke Vachaya Aur Prayog
5. Samas (B)
6. Sabdh – Vivek
7. Padhbandhan
8. Vakya, Upvakaya Aur Unke Bhed
9. Vakya Parivartan
10. Vakya Visleshan
11. Muhabare
12. Lokoktiya
13. Alangkar
Composition
1. Nibandh Lekhan (essay)
Paropkar – Madhyapanduwara Vinash (Avyasbhi)

KHASI (MIL)

I. PROSE
Pieces to be read:
1. Ka Dorbar U Khasi Hyndai
2. Ki Mawbynna, Mawniam Bad Ki Kor
II. POETRY
Pieces to be read:
1. U Dieng Bilat
2. Ki Sngi Ba La Leit Noh
3. Ka Mynsiem Bashynrang
4. U Ingkhong Shyllangmat
III. KI PHAWER U AESOP
Lynnong: 41-50
IV. KI JINGSNENG TYMMEN (PART-I)
Lynnong: 31-40
III. RAPID READER
Pieces to be read:
1. Ka Nobel Prize
2. Ka Kheiñkur Kheiñkha
3. Ka Trei Ka Ktah Ha Ri Khasi Jaiñtia
IV. GRAMMAR, COMPOSITION & ESSAY
1. The Adverb
2. Adverb and words with which they are used
From Alphabet ‘M’ to ‘W’ Page – 76 to 81
3. Comprehension
4. Essay

MIZO (MIL)

I. THU (PROSE)
Pieces to be read:
1. Nun kawng – R. L. Thanmawia
2. Thalaite Khawvel – Siamhnuna Khawlhring
3. Mizo Thufing
4. Zawlbuk – C. Lianhmingthanga
5. Peihna – Sangzuala
6. Nihna – Darchhawna
7. Mizote leh an nihna – B. Lalthangliana
8. Tihdan tha
9. Tlemte ka chhiar a, ka Pass tho – Zikpuii pa
II. HLA (POETRY)
Pieces to be read:
1. Aw Lalpa, Davida leh a thlah arsi – Patea
2. Kum sul liam hnu – C. Lalkhawliana
3. Chhul khat kual – C. Durthanga
4. Zofate inpumkhatna – C. Chhuanvawra
5. Zo bawmtu chhawkhlei par – H. Lalringa
6. Zirtu kawng – Selet Thanga
7. Mahriak ten a rang ka vai e Parte – Lalzova
8. Chhingkhual len mawi – P. S. Chawngthu
55
III. MIZO GRAMMAR
1. Parts of Speech thenkhat – Verb, Adjective, Adverd
2. Mizo tawng hman dik loh thinte
3. Tawng Upa

NEPALI (MIL)

I. PROSE
Pieces to be read:
1. Shikchhachha ko Udheshya
2. Alijheko Ichchha
3. Paras Mani Pradhan
4. Chitthi
5. Paribanda
6. Saya Rupriyanko note
7. Charlicheplin: Ek Asaadharan Vyaktittyo
II. POETRY
Pieces to be read:
1. Gaunthaliko Chiribiri
2. Garib
3. Sweet Falls
4. Sirja Auta Kagajko Itihas
5. Bhanubhakta Prati
6. Adhikar Ra Kartavya
III. RAPID READER
– ‘Maita Ghara’ by Shri Lain Singh Bangdel
IV. GRAMMAR & COMPOSITION
Pieces to be read:
1. Essay Writing (Nibandha Lekhan)
2. Comprehension (Bodh Pranali)
3. Letter Writing (Patra Lekhan)
4. Amplification (Vistritikaran)
5. Paragraph Writing (Anuchhed Lekhan)
6. Linga, Sangya, Visheshan, Sandhi, Kriya Rayasko Prakar
7. Dhatu Ra Pratyay, Upasarga, Vachya, Vakyansha, Ukhan Ra Tukka
8. Viparitarthak Shabda, Sammocharit Shabda, Prayayvachi Shabda, Shar Shabda

URDU (MIL)

I. PROSE
Pieces to be read:
Afsana Writer
1. Naya Guanoon Sadat Hassan Mantoo
2. Bheek Hayat-u-Ilah Ansari
Sawaneh (life history)
3. Sirsyed Ka Bachapan Altaf Hussain Hali
Darama
4. Aazmaish Mohammad Mujeeb
Aapbiti
5. Chori our Uska Kaffarah Syed Abid Hussain
Mazmoon
6. Auraton Ke Haquoque Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
7. Makhaloot Zuban Maulavi Abdul Haque
59
8. Mahaul Bachaia Mohammad Aslam Perveez
9. Chakabast Lakhnavi Aal Ahmed Sarvar
II. POETRY
Pieces to be read:
Ghazal Poets
1. Bahar Besapre jam Guzre hai Mirza Mohammad Rafi Sauda
2. Lai Heyat Sekh Mohammad Ibrahim Zoque
3. Dhondage agar Mulkon Mulkon Shad Aazimabadi
4. Aalam-e-Razagar Asgar Goudave
Nazam Poets
5. Jalwae Darbar-e-Dehli Akbar Illahabadi
6. Haquiquat-e-Husn Mohammad Iqubal
7. Aandhi Kaifi Azami
8. O-Des-Se A’anewale Bata Akhtar Shiravi
Rubai
9. (i) Gulshan mein Phiron ke Saire Sehra Dekhon Anis
(ii) Rutba jise dunia mein khuda deta hai Anis
(iii) Fitrat ki dihoi musarrat kho kar Tilok Chand Mahroom
(iv) Mazhab ki zuban Tilok Chand Mahroom
(v) Har aib se mana ke juda hojai Firaque Gorakhpuri

MATHEMATICS

UNIT I : NUMBER SYSTEMS
1. Real Numbers
Euclid’s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic – Statements after reviewing
work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples. Proofs of results
– irrationality. Decimal representation of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non –
terminating recurring decimals.
UNIT II : ALGEBRA
1. Polynomials
Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of a polynomial.
Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real
coefficients.
2. Pair Of Linear Equations In Two Variables
Pair of linear equations in two variables and graphical method of their solution,
consistency/inconsistency. Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of pair
of linear equations in two variables algebraically – by substitution, by elimination and by
cross – multiplication method. Simple situational problems must be included. Simple
problems on equations reducible to linear equations.
3. Quadratic Equations
Standard from of a quadratic equation ax² + bx + c = 0, (a ≠ 0). Solution of a quadratic
equation (only real roots) by factorization and completing the squares, by using quadratic
formula. Relationship between the discriminant and nature of roots.
Situational problems based on quadratic equations related to day to day activities to
be incorporated.
4. Arithmetic Progressions
Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression. Derivation of standard results of finding
the nth term and sum of the first n terms of Arithmetic Progression and their application in
solving daily life problems.
UNIT III : TRIGONOMETRY
1. Introduction to Trigonometry
Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right – angled triangle. Proof of their existence
(well defined); motivate the ratios, whichever are defined at 0° and 90°. Values (with
proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 30°, 45° and 60°. Relationships between the ratios.
2. Trigonometric Identities
Proof and applications of the identity sin² A + cos² A = 1. Only simple identities to be
given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.
3. Heights And Distances: Angle of elevation, Angle of depression
Simple and believable problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve
more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation/depression should be only 30°, 45°, 60°.
UNIT IV : COORDINATE GEOMETRY
1. Lines (In two-dimensions)
Review the concepts of coordinates geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance
formula. Section formula (internal division), Area of a triangle.
UNIT V : GEOMETRY
1. Triangles
Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles.
i) (Prove) If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other
two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
ii) (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is
parallel to the third side.
iii) (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their
corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
iv) (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their
corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.
v) (Motivate) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and
the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
vi) (Motivate) If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a
right triangle to the hypotenuse; the triangles on each side of the perpendicular
are similar to the whole triangle and to each other.
vii) (Prove) The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the
squares on their corresponding sides.
viii) (Prove) In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of
the squares of the other two sides.
ix) (Prove) In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to the sum of the squares
of the other two sides, the angle opposite to the first side is a right angle.
2. Circles
Tangents to a circle at a point of contact.
i) (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is a perpendicular to the radius
through the point of contact.
ii) (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are
equal.
3. Constructions
i) Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally).
ii) Tangent to a circle from a point outside it.
iii) Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle.
UNIT VI : MENSURATION
1. Areas Related to Circles
Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on
area and perimeter/circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of
segment of a circle, problem should be restricted to central angles of 60°, 90°, and 120° only.
Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circles should be taken).
2. Surface Areas And Volumes
i) Surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes,
cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a
cone.
ii) Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other
mixed problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different
solids may be taken).
UNIT VII : STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
1. Statistics
Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided) Cumulative
frequency graph.
2. Probability
Classical definition of Probability. Simple problems on single events (not using set
notation).

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

  • PHYSICS
    1. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF LIGHT
    Light as Invisible Energy Nature of Light Reflection of Light Position of the Image
    formed by a Plane Mirror Spherical Mirrors and Their Technology Sign Conventions
    for Reflection by Spherical Mirrors Refraction of Light Refraction by Spherical Lenses
    Power of a Lens New Cartesian Sign Convention for Lenses
    2. THE HUMAN EYE AND THE COLOURFUL WORLD
    Human Eye Accommodation of the Eye Defects of Vision and Their Correction 
    Advantages of having two eyes in Humans Refraction of Light Through an Equilateral
    Prism Dispersion of White Light by a Glass Prism Atmospheric Refraction Scattering
    of Light
    3. ELECTRICITY
     Electric Charges and its Properties  Conductors and Insulators  Flow of Electric
    Charges Electric Current Electric Potential Electric Circuit Resistance of a Conductor
    or Electric Resistance  Series and Parallel Circuits  Ohm’s Law  Expression for
    Resistances in Series Expression for Resistances in Parallel Heating Effects of Electric
    Current
    4. MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
    Magnetic Field and Field Lines Solenoid Force on a Current Carrying Conductor in a
    Magnetic Field Electromagnetic Induction Domestic Electric Circuits
    CHEMISTRY
    1. CHEMICAL REACTIONS
    Introduction Chemical Equation Types of Chemical Reactions Effects of Oxidation
    Reactions in Everyday Life
    2. ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS
    Introduction Understanding the Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases What Do
    All Acids and All Bases have in Common  How strong are Acid or Base Solutions  More
    about salts
    65
    3. METALS, NON-METALS AND METALLURGY
     Physical Properties of Metals and Non-metals  Formation of Ionic Compounds 
    Chemical Properties of Metals Specimen Problems Occurrence of Metals Corrosion
    of Metals
    4. CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS
    Necessity for Classification of Elements Early Attempts for Classification of Elements
     Mendeleev’s Periodic Table  Mendeleev’s Periodic Law  Modern version of
    Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of Elements  Defects (Limitations) in Modern Version of
    Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of Elements Modern Periodic Law Long form of Periodic
    Table Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table Study of Normal Elements of the
    Periodic Table Characteristics of Periods in Long form of Periodic Table Characteristics
    of Groups in Long form of Periodic Table Merits of the Long form of Periodic Table 
    Defects of the Long form of the Periodic Table  Advantages of the Long form of the
    Periodic Table in Learning Chemistry Sample Problems
    5. CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS
    Introduction The Covalent Bond–Bonding in Carbon and other Non-metals Versatile
    Nature of Element Carbon  Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds  Important
    Carbon Compounds–Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid Soaps And Detergents
    BIOLOGY
    1. LIFE PROCESSES
    What are life processes? Nutrition Autotrophic Nutrition Heterotrophic Nutrition
     How do organisms obtain their Nutrition? Respiration Transportation 
    Transportation in Human beings Transportation in Plants  Excretion Excretion in
    Human beings
    2. CONTROL AND COORDINATION
    Animals — Nervous system Structure of Neuron How does an impulse travel in the
    Body? Types of Nervous Actions What happens in Reflex Actions? Human Nervous
    System How are these tissues protected How does the Nervous Tissue cause Action?
    Coordination in Plants Immediate response to stimulus Movement due to Growth
    Plant Hormones Hormones in Animals Endocrine Glands in Humans
    3. REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS
     Do organisms create exact copies of themselves?  The importance of variations 
    Modes of reproduction used by single organisms  Fission  Fragmentation 
    Regeneration  Budding  Vegetative propagation  Spore formation  Sexual
    reproduction Why the Sexual mode of Reproduction?  Sexual Reproduction in
    Flowering Plants Reproduction in Human Beings Male Reproductive System Female
    Reproductive System What happens when the egg is not fertilised? Reproductive
    health
    66
    4. HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION
     Accumulation of variation during reproduction Heredity  Inherited traits
    Rules for the Inheritance of traits — Mendel’s contribution How do these traits get
    expressed? Evolution Acquired and inherited traits Speciation Evolution and
    classification Evolution by stages Evolution should not be equated with ‘progress’ 
    Human Evolution.
    SOCIAL SCIENCE

SECTION I: HISTORY
Unit I: Events and Processes
1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
2. Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements
Unit II: Livelihoods, Economies and Societies
3. Industrialisation (1850s-1950s)
4. Urbanisation and Urban Lives
Unit III: Culture, Identity and Society
5. Print Culture and Nationalism
6. Financial Education
Part I: Electronic Commerce (e-commerce) only for classroom
Part II: E-Commerce and Financial Regulatory Bodies transaction and Internal
of Country Assessment.
7. Part I: Information Technology in Insurance Sector
Part II: Insurance Ombudsman
SECTION II: GEOGRAPHY
1. Resources
2. Water Resources
3. Forest Resources
4. Minerals and Energy Resources
5. Agriculture
6. Manufacturing Industries
7. Lifelines of National Economy
8. Meghalaya: An Overview
9. Planning Ahead: by the People, for the People
SECTION III: CIVICS
1. Unit I: Role of Caste in Indian Politics and Communalism
2. Unit II: Nature of Indian Federal Structure
3. Unit III: Popular Struggles and Movements
4. Political Parties
5. Challenges to Democracy
6. Voters’ Awareness and its Importance
7. Women’s Rights in India
8. Supreme Court’s Ruling on Child Abuse
9. The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016
10. Financial Education
Commodity Futures Market only for classroom transaction and
11. Part I: Economic Depression Internal Assessment.
Part II: Investing in Shares
Part III: Initial Public Offering (IPO)
SECTION IV: ECONOMICS
70
1. Sectors of the Indian Economy
2. The Story of Development
3. Money and Financial System
4. Globalisation and the Indian Economy
5. Consumer Rights
6. Financial Education
Benefits of Insurance only for classroom transaction
7. Part I: Learning to Trade and Internal Assessment
Part II: Stock Exchange and Economy

HEALTH & PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Units to be read
Unit I Growth and Development
1. How Mature Are You?
2. You and Your Family
3. Marriage and Family Life
Unit II Diseases
1. Some Defence Measures Against Diseases (Immunity and Immunization)
2. National Health Programme
3. Importance of Pupil’s and People’s Participation in the Implementation of
These Programmes
4. Primary Health Care, Meaning and Scope, Health Care Set Up in Rural and
Urban Areas
Unit III Consumer Education
1. Consumer Education – Consumer Rights, Making Correct Choices While
Buying Different Items, Food Adulteration
2. Systems of Medicine and Quackery
3. Drugs, Medicines and Self-Medication
Unit IV International Health
1. Importance of International Health ………………………..
Unit V Life Skills Education
1. Teenage Pregnancy
2. Sexually Transmitted Infections
3. Basic Facts About HIV/AIDS
4. Prevention Against HIV/AIDS

COMPUTER SCIENCE

  • PIECES TO BE READ:
    1. Computer Fundamentals
     Types of Software
     System Software
     Operating System
     Language Translators
     Utilities
     Application Software
     Basic Commands in Operating Systems
     What is Data?
     How to Measure Computer Data?
     Number System
     Conversion
     Logic Gates
     Logic Circuits of Primary and Secondary Gates
    2. Internet Basics
     Internet
     How Does the Internet Work?
     Wired and Wireless connection
     Protocols
     World Wide Web (WWW)
     Web Browser
     Web Server
     Website
     Web Page
    74
     Web Address
     IP Address
     Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
     Intranet
     HTML
     HTML Editor
     Creating and Viewing HTML Documents
     HTML Tag
     HTML Element
     Structure of an HTML Document
     HTML Heading Tag
     HTML Paragraph tag
     Line Break tag
     Horizontal Rule tag
     Text Formatting Tags
     Comment Tag
     List Tags
     Images In HTML Tables In HTML
     Linking In HTML
     Frames In HTML
    3. Object Oriented Programming I – C++
     What is OOPs?
     Introduction to C++
     Structure of a C++ program
     Data types
     Variables in C++
     Escape Sequences
     Input / Output in C++
     Operators
     Precedence of operators
     Control Structure
     Loop Structure
     Bug and Debug
    4. Object Oriented Programming II – Java
     Characteristics of Java
     Different Forms of Java
     Java Program
     Variables
     Data Types
    75
     Operators In Java
     Programming Structure in Java
     Some Examples of Java Programs
    5. Societal Impacts of IT – II
     Virus
     Worm
     Malware
     Spyware
     Scareware
     Adware
     Spam
     Internet Hacking
     Protect the Computer
     Backup and Recovery Tools
     Information Security Provisions in E-commerce
     Ways for safety computing

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

PIECES TO BE READ:
UNIT I: RESTORING BALANCE IN ECOSYSTEM
1. Need for Conservation and Management of Water
2. Conservation and Management of Forests, Grasslands and Semi-Arid Ecosystems
3. Conservation and Management of Soil
4. Conservation and Management of Wildlife
5. Relevance of Indigenous Practices
UNIT II: POLLUTION
1. Sources of Pollution and Major Pollutants
2. Effects of Pollution on Environment, Human Health and Other Organisms
3. Abatement of Pollution
UNIT III: ISSUES OF THE ENVIRONMENT
1. Decline in Productivity; Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People
2. Energy Crisis – Urban and Rural Sectors
3. Greenhouse Effect, Climatic Changes and Global Warming
4. Acid Rain and Ozone Layer Depletion
UNIT IV: STRIVING FOR A BETTER ENVIRONMENT
1. Use of Efficient and Eco-friendly Technology
2. Ecological Restoration and Conservation

WORK EDUCATION

PIECES TO BE READ:
1. Photography
2. Commercial Art
3. Tie & Dye
4. Interior Decoration
5. Gardening
6. Woodwork
7. Puppet Making
8. Papercraft
9. Working with Leather
10. Chemical Technology
11. Designing and Stitching
12. Community Service: Adult Literacy Program
13. Food Preservation
14. Electrical Gadget
15. Computer: Making a Web Page

Meghalaya Board Class 12th Syllabus

Himachal Pradesh Board Of School Education

Himachal Pradesh Board Of School Education

HP Board Class 10 Maths Syllabus

UNIT I : NUMBER SYSTEMS

1. REAL NUMBERS

Euclid’s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic-statements after reviewing work
done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of resultsirrationality of √2 , √3 , √5 , decimal expansions of rational numbers in terms of terminating
non-terminating recurring decimals.

UNIT II : ALGEBRA

1. Polynomials

Zeros of a polynomial, Relationship between zeros and coefficients of a polynomial with
particular reference to quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division
algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.

2. Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables. 

Pair of linear equations in two variables. Geometric representation of different possibilities of

solutions inconsistency.

Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of pair of linear equations in two variables
algebraically by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication. Simple situational
problems must be included. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations may be
included.
3. Quadratic Equations 

Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2
+bx+c = 0, (a≠0). Solution of the quadratic equations
(only real roots) by factorization and by completing the square, i.e. by using quadratic formula.
Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots.
Problems related to day to day activities to be incorporated.

4. Arithmetic Progression
Motivation for studying AP. Derivation of standard results of finding the nth term and sum of first
n terms

UNIT III : TRIGONOMETRY

1. Trigonometric Ratios ( 9 Marks)

Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well
defined); motivate the ratios, whichever are defined at 00
& 900
. Values (with proofs) of the
trigonometric ratios of 300
, 450
, & 600
. Relationships between the ratios.
2. Trigonometric Identities
Proof and applications of the identity sin2
A + Cos2
A = 1. Only simple identities to be given.
Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.
3. Heights and Distances ( 5 Marks)

Simple and believable problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more
than two right triangle. Angles of elevation/ depression should be only 30 degrees
, 45 degrees
, 60 degrees
.

UNIT IV: COORDINATE GEOMETRY

1. Lines (In two-dimensions) 

Review the concepts of coordinate geometry done earlier including graphs of linear equations.
Awareness of geometrical representation of quadratic polynomials. Distance between two
points and section formula (internal). Area of a triangle.

UNIT V : GEOMETRY

1. TRIANGLES

Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles

1. (Prove) If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect to other two sides in
distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
2. (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio. The line is parallel to the
third side.
3. (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are
proportional and the triangles are similar.
4. (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding
angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.

5. (Motivate) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides
including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
6. (Prove) The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares on their
corresponding sides.
7. (Motivate) If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the
hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and
to each other.
8. (Prove) In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the
other two sides.
9. (Prove) In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to sum of the squares on the other two
sides, the angles opposite to the first side is a right triangle

2. CIRCLES

Tangents to a circle motivated by chords, drawn from points coming closer and closer and closer
to the point.
1. (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of
contact.
2. (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to circle are equal.

3. CONSTRUCTIONS

1. Division of line segment in a given ratio (internally)
2. Tangent to circle from a point outside it.
3. Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle.

UNIT VI MENSURATION

1. AREAS OF PLANE FIGURES 

The area of circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems bases on areas and
perimeter/ circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a
circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 600
, 900
, & 1200
only. Plane figures
involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken).
2. SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES 

I. Problems on finding surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following
cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone.
II. Problems involving concerting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed
problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken)

UNIT VII : STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

1. Statistics 

Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative
frequency graph.
2. PROBABILITY

Classical definition of probability. Connection with probability as given in class IX. Simple
problems on single events, not using set notation.

Assam seba board

Assam seba board

Assam seba board Syllabus

Class 10 SEBA Mathematics Syllabus

Unit I : 

Number Systems

Real Numbers (Periods 15)

Euclid’s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic-statements after illustrating and after reviewing work done earlier  and motivating through examples. Results Proofs – Irrationality of √2, √3, √5, decimal expansions of rational numbers in terms of non- Terminating / Terminating recurring decimals.

Unit II : 

Algebra

1. Polynomials (Periods 6)

Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of a polynomial with particular reference

to quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.

2. Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables (Periods 15)

Pair of linear equations in two variables. Geometric representation of different possibilities of solutions/ inconsistency.

Algebraic conditions for number of solutions.

Solution of pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically- by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication. Simple situational problems must be included. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations may be included

3. Quadratic Equations (Periods 15)

Standard form of a quadratic equation, (a ≠ 0).

Solution of quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization and by completing the square, i.e. by using the quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. Problems related to day-to-day activities to be incorporated.

4. Arithmetic Progressions (AP) (Periods 8)

Motivation for studying A.P. Derivation of standard results of finding the nth terms and sum of first n terms.

Unit III : Trigonometry

1. Introduction to Trigonometry (Periods 18)

Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios, whichever are defined at 0 and 90. Values (with proof) of the trigonometric ratios of

30, 45 and 60. Relationship between the ratios. Trigonometric Identities : Proof and applications of the identity . Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.

2. Heights and Distances (Periods 8)

Simple and believable problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation/depression should be only 30, 45 and 60

Unit IV : Coordinate Geometry

Lines (In two-dimensions) (Periods 15)

Review the concepts of coordinate geometry done earlier including graphs of linear equations. Awareness of geometrical representation of quadratic polynomials. Distance between two points and section formula (internal). Area of a triangle.

Unit V : Geometry

1. Triangles (Periods 15)

Definitions, examples, counterexamples of similar triangles.

1. (Prove) If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.

2. (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.

3. (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.

4. (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.

5. (Motivate) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two

triangles are similar.

6. (Motivate) If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other.

7. (Prove) The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares on their corresponding sides.

8. (Prove) In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.

9. (Prove) In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angle opposite to the first side is a right triangle.

2Circle (Periods 8)

Tangents to a circle motivated by chords drawn from points coming closer and closer to the point.

1. (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.

2. (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equal.

3. Constructions (Periods 8)

1. Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally).

2. Tangent to a circle from a point outside it.

3. Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle

Unit VI: Mensuration

1. Areas Related to Circles (Periods 12)

Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter/ circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle,

problems should be restricted to central angle of 60,90and 120 only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken.)

2. Surface Areas and Volumes (Periods12)

1. Problems on finding surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone.

2. Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems(Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken.)

Unit – VII : Statistics and Probability

1. Statistics (Periods 15)

Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph.

2. Probability (Periods 10)

Classical definition of probability. Connection with probability as given in Class IX. Simple problems on single events, not using set notation.

Appendix

1. Proof in Mathematics

Further discussion on the concept of ‘statement’. ‘Proof’ and ‘argument’. Further illustrations of deductive proof with complete arguments using simple results from arithmetic, algebra and geometry. Simple theorems

of the “Given….. and assuming….. prove……”. Training of using only the given facts (irrespective of their truths) to arrive at the required conclusion. Explanation of ‘converse’, ‘negation’, constructing converses and negations of given result/statements.

2. Mathematical Modelling

Reinforcing the concept of mathematical modelling, using simple examples of models where some constraints are ignored. Estimating probability of occurrence of certain events and estimating averages

may be considered. Modelling fair instalments payments, using only simple interest and future value (use of AP).

Class 10 SEBA Science Syllabus

  • Chemical Reactions & Equations
  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Metals and Non – Metals
  • Carbon and its compounds
  • periodic Classification of elements
  • Life Processes
  • Control and Coordination
  • How do Organisms reproduce
  • Heredity and Evolution
  • Light – Reflection and Refraction
  • Human eye and colorful world
  • Electricity
  • Magnetic effects of electric current
  • Sources of Energy
  • Our Environment
  • Management of natural resources

List of Science Practicals

BIOLOGY

  • To prepare a temporary mount of a leaf to demonstrate its stomata.
  • To show that light is essential for photosynthesis.
  • To study binary fission of Amoeba or yeast with the help of prepared slide.
  • To dissect and display different parts of a complete flower (China rose)
  • To study the morphological characters of cockroach.

PHYSICS

  • To find the image distance due to an object placed infront of convex lens and hence to determine its focal length.
  • To study the image distance corresponding to an object placed at 2f, 3f, 4f distance in front of a convex lens.
  • To study the phenomenon of refraction through prism (by pin method) and hence to determine the angle of deviation.
  • To study the change of current due to variation of resistance in an electric circuit.
  • To study and demonstate the principle of working of electric motor.

CHEMISTRY

  • To show that electrovalent compounds are soluble in water but convalent compounds are not.
  • To show that aqueous solution of ionic compounds conduct electricity.
  • (i) To test the properties of hydrochloric acid with the help of reagents

(a) litmus solution (blue/red) or litmus paper.

(b) zinc metal

(c) Sodium carbonate

(ii) To test properties of sodium hydroxide with the help of

(a) Blue/red litmus solution

(b) zinc metal

(c) Sodium carbonate

(iii) Demonstration of a neutralization reaction.

  • To detect the presence of the functional group in carboxylic acid.
  • To study some redox reactions.

Assam Board Class 12 Mathematics Syllabus

APPENDIX :
1. Proofs in Mathematics :
2. Mathematical Modelling :
Unitwise Distribution of Course contents :
Unit-I RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
(i) Relations :
Types of relations : (Empty, universal, identity, reflexive, symmetric, antisymmetric and transitive relations in a set) Equivalence relation and equivalence class in a set.
(ii) Functions :
Types of functions : (injective, surjective and bijective functions) Composition of functions Invertible
function Binary operation.
(iii) Inverse Trigonometrical functions Basic concepts :
(domain, co-domain, range (principal value branches) and graphs of inverse trigonometric functions)
Properties of inverse trigonometric functions.
Unit-II ALGEBRA
(i) Matrices
Concept of a matrix and its notation and order :
Types of matrices (row, column, square, diagonal, scalar identity and zero matrices) Equality of matrices, Operation on matrices (addition of matrices, multiplication of a matrix by a scalar, multiplication of
matrices)
Properties of matrix addition, scalar multiplication of a matrix and multiplication of matrices Transpose
of a matrix symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Elementary row and column operations of a
matrix. Invertible matrices.
(ii) Determinants :
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 × 3 matrices), properties of determinants, Area of a trianglee,
Minors and co-factors, Adjoint and inverse of a matrix. Applications of Determinants and matrices.
Unit-III CALCULUS
(i) Continuity and Differentiability :
Continuity, differentiability, derivative of composite functions, (chain rule), Derivatives of implicit function, Exponential and logarithmic functions and its differentiation, Logarithmic differentiation, derivatives of functions in parametric forms, second order, derivative, Roll’s and Lagrange’s mean value
theorem (without proof) and their geometrical interpretations.
(ii) Application of Derivatives :
Rate of Change of quantities, increasing and decreasing functions, tangents and normals, approximation, maxima and minima.
(iii) Integrals :
Integration as an inverse process of differentiation. Integration by substitution, Integration using trigonometric identies. Integration by partial fractions and integration by parts. Evaluation of the integrals
of the type–
Unit-IV VECTOR ALGEBRA AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
1. Vector Algebra :
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ ratios of vectors. Types of
vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector,
components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a
point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection of a vector on
a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors.
2. Three-dimensional Geometry :
Direction cosines/ ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vectors equation of a line, coplanar
and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle
between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.
Unit-V LINEAR PROGRAMMING
Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types
of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method
of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).
Unit-VI PROBABILITY
Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability, Baye’s
theorem. Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable.
Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.

Assam Board Class 12 Physics Syllabus

Unit-I : 

ELECTROSTATICS
Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law – forces between multiple charges, force between two point charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric dipole, electric field due to dipole, electric field due to a point charge, ;

torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
Electric field lines; Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field
due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged
thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system
of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of charges and of electric
dipoles in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and
electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel,
capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates,
energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.
Unit-II : CURRENT ELECTRICITY
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and
their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and
non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors,
colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature
dependence of resistance.Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in
parallel.
Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
Potentiometer– principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of
emfs cell’S; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit-III : MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM
Concept of Magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
Biot-Savart law and its applications to current carrying circular loop (both at centre and at axial point),
finite straight conductor.
Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.
Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Lorentz force Cyclotron.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel currentcarrying conductors-definition of one ampere current. Torque experienced by a current loop in a Uniform
magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer– its current sensitivity and voltage sentitivity and conversion to
ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a
revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and
perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar
magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances, with examples. Magnetic Hysteresis Electromagnets and
factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
Unit-IV : ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS
Faraday’s Expt, Magnetic flux, Electromagnetic induction; Growth and decay of currents in DC LR,
RC circuits, Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual
inductance.
Alternating currents voltage, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage power; reactance and
impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit resonance power in AC
circuits, wattless current.
AC generator and transformer.
Unit-V : ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Need for displacement current.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays)
including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit-VI : OPTICS (Follow NC Convention wherever necessary)
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its
applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of
light through a prism.
Scattering of light– blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
Optical instruments : Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects(myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical
telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Wave optics : Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a
plane surface using wavefronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.
Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources
and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light;
Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Unit-VII : DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATION
Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation– particle
nature of light.
Matter waves– wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.
Unit-VIII : ATOMS AND NUCLEI
Alpha– particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s atomic model; Bohr model, energy levels,
hydrogen spectrum.
Composition and size of a nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity– alpha,
beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation,
mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and
fusion.
Unit-IX : ELECTRONIC DEVICES
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode– I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as
a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as
a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor, transistor
as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT,
NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
Unit-X : COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV
and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in
the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection
of an amplitude-modulated wave

Assam Board Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus

Unit-1 : Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces : molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic
solids, amorphous and Crystalline solids (e1ementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three
dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per
unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Unit-2 : Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in
liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of
boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses
using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
Unit-3 : Electrochemistry
Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of
conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard
electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.
Unit-4 : Chemical kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction: concentration,
temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant,
integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision
theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).Unit-5 Surface chemistry
Adsorption : Physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids;
catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state:
distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular and
macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types of emulsions.
Unit-6 General principles and processes of Isolation of Elements
Princicples and methods of extraction : concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method
and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit-7 p-Block Elements
Group 15 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states,
trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen– preparation, properties and uses; compounds
of nitrogen : preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure
only); Phosphorous – allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorous : preparation and properties of
phosphine, halides (PCl3
, PCl5
) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurence,
trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen : preparation, properties and uses; simple
oxides; ozone. Sulphur– allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur preparation, properties and uses of
sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid : industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of
sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses
of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids or halogens (structures only).
Group 18 elements : Genera1 introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical
and chemical properties, uses.
Unit-8 : d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals,
general trends in properties of the first row transition metals– rnetallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4
.
Lanthanoids : electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids : Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Unit-9 : Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds : Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties
and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; Werner’s
theory, VBT, CFT; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (.in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit-10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes : Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism
of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directivc influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).Uses and environmental effects of-dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrochloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit-11 : Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (primary alcohols
only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration of alcohol uses, some important compounds– methanol and ethanol.
Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature
of phenols, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit-12 : Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids
Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in
aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties; uses.
Unit-13 : Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts : Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit-14 Biomolecules
Carbohydrates : Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose),
oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.
Proteins : Elementary idea of a – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Hormones-Elementary idea (excluding structures)
Vitamins : Classificacion and functions.
Nucleic Acids : DNA and RNA.
Unit-15 Polymers
Classification : Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters,
bakelite, rubber.
Unit-16 : Chemistry in Evelyday life
1. Chemicals in medicines– analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
2. Chemicals in food preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

Assam Board Class 12 Biology Syllabus

Unit-VI : Reproduction :
Chapter 1 : Reproduction in Organisms : (i) Asexual Reproduction; (ii) Sexual Reproduction
,, 2 :Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants : (i) Flower-A fascinating Organ of Angiosperms;
(ii) Pre-fertilization: Structures and Events; (iii) Double Fertilization; (iv) Post-fertilization:
Structures and Events; (v) Apomisix and Polyembryony.
,, 3 :Human reproduction : (i) The Male Reproductive System; (ii) The Female Reproductive
System; (iii) Gametogenesis; (iv) Menstrual Cycle; (v) Fertilization and Implantation; (vi)
Pregnancy and Embryonic Development; (vii) Parturition and Lactation.
,, 4 :Reproductive Health : (i) Reproductive Health-Problems and Strategies; (ii) Population
Explosion and Birth Control; (iii) Medical Termination of Pregnancy; (iv) Sexually Transmitted
Diseases; (v) Infertility.
Unit-VII : Genetics and Evolution
Chapter 5 : Principles of Inheritance and Variation : (i) Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance; (ii) Inheritance
of One Gene; (iii) Inheritance of Two Genes; (iv) Sex Determination; (v) Mutation; (vi) Genetic
Disorders.
,, 6 : Molecular Basis of Inheritance : (i) The DNA; (ii) The Search for Genetic Material;
(iii) RNA World; (iv) Replication; (v) Transcription; (vi) Genetic Code; (vii) Translation; (viii)
Regulation of Gene Expression; (ix) Human Genome Project; (x) DNA Fingerprinting.
,, 7 : Evolution : (i) Origin of Life; (ii) Evolution of Life Formes- A Theory; (iii) Evidences for
Evolution; (iv) Adaptive Radiation; (v) Biological Evolution; (vi) Mechanism of Evolution; (vii)
Hardy- Weinberg Principle; (viii) A Brief account of Evolution; (ix) Origin and Evolution of
Man.
Unit-VIII : Biology in Human Welfare
Chapter 8 : Human Health and Diseases : (i) Common Diseases in Humans; (ii) Immunity; (iii) AIDS;
(vi) Cancer; (v) Drugs and Alcohol Abuse.
,, 9 : Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production : (i) Animal Husbandry; (ii) Plant
Breeding; (iii) Single Cell Protein; (iv) Tissue Culture
,, 10 :Microbes in Human Welfare : (i) Microbes in Household Products; (ii) Microbes in Industrial
Products; (iii) Microbes in Sewage Treatment; (iv) Microbes in Production of Biogas; (v)
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents; (vi) Microbes as Biofertilisers.
Unit-IX : Biotechnology
Chapter 11 : Biotechnology; Principles and Processes :
(i) Principles of Biotechnology; (ii) Tools of recombinant DNA Technology; (iii) Processes
of Recombinant DNA Technology.
,, 12 : Biotechnology and its Application :
(i) Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture;
(ii) Biotechnological Applications in Medicine;
(iii) Transgenic Animals; (iv) Ethical Issues.
Unit-X : Ecology
Chapter 13 : Organisms and Populations : (i) Organism and its Environment; (ii) Populations.
,, 14 : Ecosystems : (i) Ecosystem- Structure and Function; (ii) Productivity; (iii) Decomposition;
(iv) Energy Flow; (v) Ecological Pyramids; (vi) Ecological Succession; (vii) Nutrient Cycling;
(viii) Ecosystem Services.
,, 15 : Biodiversity and Conservation : (i) Biodiversity; (ii) Biodiversity Conservation; (iii) National
Park and Sanctuaries of Assam with special reference to conservation of endangered species. 16 : Bioresources of Assam : (i) Medicinal and Timber Yielding Plants; (ii) Sericogenic Resources
(Muga and Eri)
,, 17 :Environmental Issues : (i) Air Pollution and its Control; (ii) Water Pollution and its Control;
(iii) Solid Wastes; (iv) Agro-chemicals and their effects; (v) Radioactive Wastes; (vi)
Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming; (vii) Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere; (viii)
Degradation by Improper Resource Utilization and Maintenanace; (ix) Deforestation

West Bengal Board

West Bengal Board

Education Boards in West Bengal:

  • West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE)
  • West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education (WBCHSE)
  • West Bengal Board of Primary Education (WBBPE)
  • School Education Department, West Bengal (WBSED)
  • West Bengal Board of Madrasah Education (WBBME)

West Bengal Board Syllabus

WBBSE Board Class 10 Mathematics Syllabus

  • Quadratic equation in one variable
  • Simple Interest
  • Theorems related to circle
  • Rectangular Parallelopiped or Cuboid
  • Ratio and proportion
  • Compound Interest (upto 3 years) and uniform rate of increase or decrease
  • Theorems related to angles in a circle
  • Right Circular Cylinder
  • Quadratic Surd
  • Theorems related to cyclic quadrilateral
  • Construction: Construction of circumcircle and incircle of a triangle
  • Sphere
  • Variation
  • Partnership Business
  • Theorems related to Tangent to a circle
  • Right circular cone
  • Construction: Construction of tangent to a circle
  • Similarity
  • Problems related to different soild objects
  • Trigonometry : concept of measurement of angle
  • Construction: Determination of mean proportional
  • Pythagoras theorem
  • Trigonometric Ratios and Trigonometric Identities
  • Trigonometric Ratios of complementary angle
  • Application of Trigonometric Ratios : Heights and Distances
  • Statistics : Mean, Median, Ogive, Mode

 

WBBSE Board Class 10 Physical Science and Environment Syllabus

  • Concerns about Our Environment
  • Behaviour of Gases
  • Chemical Calculations
  • Thermal Phenomena
  • Light
  • Current Electricity
  • Atomic Nucleus
  • Periodic Table and Periodicity of the Properties of Elements.
  • Ionic and Covalent Bonding
  • Electricity and Chemical Reactions
  • Inorganic Chemistry in the Laboratory and in Industry
  • Metallurgy
  • Organic Chemistry

WBBSE Board Class 10 Life Science and Environment Syllabus

  • Control and Coordination in living organisms
  • Continuity of life
  • Heredity and some common genetic diseases
  • Evolution and adaptation
  • Environment, its resources and their conservation

WBCHSE Class 12 Mathematics Syllabus

UNIT-I : RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

  1. Relations and Functions:

Types of relations : reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and

onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.

  1. Inverse Trigonometric Functions:

Definition, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions.

Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.

UNIT-II : ALGEBRA

  1. Matrices:

Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non-commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).

  1. Determinants:

Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix. Cramer’s Rule and its applications.

UNIT-III : CALCULUS

  1. Continuity and Differentiability:

Continuity and differentialiabity, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivates of inverse trigonometric functions, derivate of implicit functions, concept of exponential and logarithmic functions to the base e. Logarithmic functions as inverse of exponential functions.Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagranges’s Mean value theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretation and simple applications.

  1. Applications of Derivatives:

Applications of derivatives: rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations),

  1. Integrals:

Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, only simple integrals of the type to be evaluated.Definite integrals as a limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.

  1. Applications of the Integrals:

Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles/parabolas/ ellipses (in standard form only), Area under the curve y=sin x, y=cos x, area between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable)

  1. Differential Equations:

Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, homogeneous, differential equations of first order and first degree.

UNIT-IV : VECTORS AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

  1. Vectors:

Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of vectors. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), Position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a Scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors. Scalor triple product.

  1. Three – dimensional Geometry:

Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines (ii) two planes (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.

UNIT-V : LINEAR PROGRAMMING

  1. Linear Programming:

Introduction, definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).

UNIT-VI : PROBABILITY

  1. Probability:

Multiplication theorem on probability Conditional probability, independent events, total probability, Baye’s theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.

WBCHSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus

Unit – I: Electrostatics

Electric Charge; conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law- force between two point charge, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous distribution.

Electric field, Electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Guass theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential -energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.

Unit – II: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charge in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance.

V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.

Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Elementary idea of secondary cells.

Kirchoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit – III: Magnetic effect of current & Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.

Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.

Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current – carrying in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current conductors – definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer- its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a resolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para –, dia and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

Unit- IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

Electromagnetic Induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; lenz’s law, Eddy currents, Self and mutual inductance.

Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.

AC generator and transformer.

Unit – V: Electromagnetic waves

Need for displacement current. Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit- VI: Optics

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens- maker’s formula. Newton’s relation: Displacement method to find position of image (conjugate points) magnification power of a lens, combination of thin- lenses in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of roman effect.

Optical instrument: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experience for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

Unit- VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature light.

Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davission – Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

Unit- VIII: Atoms & Nuclei

Alpha – particle scattering experiment: Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Continuous and characteristic X – rays. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radio activity alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.

Mass – energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.

Unit- IX: Electronic Devices

Energy bands in solids, conductors, insulators and Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode;

Zener diode as a voltage regular. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

Unit- X: Communication Systems

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation.

Production and detection of an amplitude – modulated wave.

WBCHSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus

Unit – I: Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solid, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, packing efficiency, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n & p-type semiconductors.

Unit – II: Solutions

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solution of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it.

Unit – III: Electrochemistry

Red ox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. Reaction between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells: corrosion.

Unit – IV: Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reactions; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment), activation energy, Arrhenius equation.

Unit – V: Surface Chemistry

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis; homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis; colloidal state, distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic, multimolecular colloids; properties of collioids; tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electro phoresis, coagulation; emulsion – types of emulsions. Elementary idea of nanomaterials.

Unit – VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolysis method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

Unit – VII:p- Block Elements

Group 15 elements: general introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorus – allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorus; preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCL3, PCL5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen; preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone, sulphur – allotropic forms;

Compounds of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, other oxides and oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structure only).

Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties uses.

Unit – VIII: d and f Block Elements

General introduction electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

Unit – IX: Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds – Introduction, Ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shape, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding (Werner’s theory, VBT and CFT); structural and stereo isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion of analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems)

Unit – X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes:

Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Stability of carbonations, R-S and d-I configurations

Haloarenes:

Nature of C-X bond, substitutions reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compound only, stability of carbocations R-S and d-I configurations)

Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iododorm, freons, DDT.

Unit – XI: Alcohols, phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol.

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenol.

Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit – XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophillic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit – XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Nitro compounds: General methods of preparation and chemical reactions.

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.

Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context.

Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit – XIV: Bio molecules

Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and Ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose,maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.

Proteins – Elementary idea of α– amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.

Lipids and hormones, their classification and functions.

Vitamins: Classification and functions.

Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA.

Unit – XV: Polymers

Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and Condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like poly, nylon, polyesters, Bakelite, rubber, biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

Unit – XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life

  1. Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, anti fertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines, antioxidants.
  2. Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial, sweetening agents.
  3. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

WBCHSE Class 12 Biological Sciences Syllabus

Unit I REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS

  1. Reproduction in Organisms

1.1 Introduction: Reproduction a characteristic features of all organism froms, continuation of species.

1.2 Modes of reproduction: Asexual and sexual

1.3 Asexual reproduction: definition, characteristics

1.4 Modes of asexual reproduction: General discussion of the following types in brief with common examples & diagram of each type:

a) Binary fission

b) Sporulation

c) Budding

d) Gemmule

e) Fragmentation

f) Regeneration

1.5 Vegetative propagation in plants:

a) Natural: (general discussion in brief, Mention common example and give figures)

b) Artificial: (brief description of method, example and diagram)- cutting grafting layering and gootee.

  1. Sexual Reproduction In flowering Plants

2.1 Flower structure: Typical structure of a complete regular flower with diagram.

2.2 Pollination: Definition, types-Self pollination ( autogamy and geitonogamy) and cross pollination. (allogamy and xenogamy); agents of pollinationwind, water, animals, insects and birdsbrief description with example, significance.

2.3 Development of male gametophyte

2.4 Development of female gametophyte

2.5 Outbreeding devices

2.6 Pollen- pistil interaction

2.7 Double fertization

2.8 Post fertilisation events – development of endosperm and embryo (details not required).

2.9 Formation of fruit and development of seed (elementary)

2.10 Special modes – apomixes, parthenogenesis, Parthenocarpy and Polyembryony (brief account)

2.11 Significance of seed and fruit formation

  1. Human Reproduction

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Male Reproductive system (outline with diagram)

3.3 Female Reproductive system (outline with diagram)

3.4 Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary

3.5 Gametogenesis- Definition and type

3.6 Spermatogenesis (brief account)

3.7 Oogenesis (brief account)

3.8 Menstrual cycle

3.9 Fertilization and development of embryo upto blastocyst formation and implantation.

3.10 Pregnancy and Placenta formation (elementary idea)

3.11 Parturition (elementary idea)

3.12 Lactation (elementary idea)

  1. Reproductive Health

4.1 Introduction: what is reproductive health?

4.2 Need for reproductive health

4.3 Sexually Transmitted diseases (STD) And its prevention

4.4 Birth control- Needs and Methods:

  1. i) Contraception
  2. ii) Medial termination of pregnancy (MTP)

4.5 Amniocentesis: What it is and it’s Significance

4.6 Infertility and assisted reproductive Technologies – IVF (in vitro fertilization), ZIFT (Zygote intrafallopian transfer), GIFT (Gamete intrafallopian transfer), Elementary idea for general awareness.

Unit- II GENETICS AND EVOLUTION

  1. Heredity and Variation

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Mendelian Inheritance (laws only)

5.3 Deviations from Mendelism

i) Incomplete dominance

ii) Co-dominance

iii) Multiple alleles and Inheritance of Blood groups (ABO & Rh)

iv) Pleiotroph

5.4 Polygenic inheritance (elementary)

5.5 Chromosome theory of inheritance

5.6 Chromosomes and genes

5.7 Sex determination in – human, bird and honey bee

5.8 Linkage and crossing over

5.9 Sex- linked inheritance – Haemophilia and colour blindness

5.10 Mendelian disorder in human:

Chromosomal disorders:

i) Autosomal – thalassemia

ii) Sex-linked – Down’s Syndrome,

iii) Turner’s Syndrome and Klinefelter’s Syndrome (cause & symptoms only, process of inheritance is not required)

  1. Molecular Basis of Inheritance

6.1 Search for genetic material

6.2 DNA as genetic material: (experiments on Bacterial transformation by F. Griffith; Avery, McLeod and Harshey & Chase)

6.3 Structure of DNA

6.4 Structure of RNA

6.5 Types of RNA – mRNA; rRNA & tRNA

6.6 DNA Packaging

6.7 Central dogma (elementary), DNA replication, transcription, genetic code and translation.

6.8 Regulation of Gene expression (elementary) Lac Operon

6.9 Genome and Human genome project

6.10 DNA finger printing

  1. Evolution

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Origin of life – Origin of earththeories on the origin of life on earth:

i) Special creation

ii) Spontaneous generation

iii) Extra-terrestrial or cosmic origin (all with brief statement)

iv) Abiogenic origin or chemical origin of life – Oparin-Haldane Hypothesis supported by Miller’s experiment, conclusion

7.3 Biological Evolution

a) What is biological Evolution?

b) Evidence for Biological Evolution

i) Paleonotological

ii) From comparative anatomy

iii) Embryological

iv) Molecular

7.4 Theories of organic evolution

Introduction – Drawin’s contribution- Modern Synthetic Theory- Hardy Weinberg’s Principle

  1. Mechanism of Evolution

8.1 Variation- Sources of variation

8.2 Mutation as a sources of variation (types not needed, mention only Hugo de V ries experiment)

8.3 Recombination as a source of Variation (process is not needed)

8.4 Natural selection with examples:

Types of Natural selection

8.5 Gene Flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s Principle

8.6 Adaptive radiation

Human evolution (with diagram)

Unit-III BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE

  1. Health and Diseases

9.1 Basic concept of immunology – vaccines

Introduction-immune system- Antigen, Antibody, Antigen-Antibody reaction-Types of immunity-vaccines and vaccination

9.2 Pathogens, parasites causing human diseases- Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Psneumonia,common cold, Amoebiosis and ring worm. (symptoms of Disease, name of causative agent, mode of Transmission, preventive measures)

9.3 Cancer, HIV and AIDS – Symptoms of disease, causative agent, mode of transmission, preventive measures

9.4 Adolescence : drug and alcohol abuse

10.Improvement in Food Production

10.1 Plant breeding

10.2 Tissue culture

10.3 Single cell protein (SCP)

10.4 Biofortification

10.5 Animal husbandary (poultry and diary, farm management, animal breeding, beekeeping and fisheries)

  1. Microbes In Human Welfare

11.1 In household food processing

11.2 Industrial production

11.3 Sewage treatment

11.4 Energy generation

11.5 Bio control agents and bio fertilizers

Unit- IV BIO TECHNOLOGY ITS APPLICATION

  1. Biotechnology and its Application

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Principle

12.3 Process – Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA technology)

12.4 Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture – introduction

12.5 Human insulin and vaccine productiongene therapy

12.6 Genetically modified organisms- BT crops (What is G.M.O.? example- cotton), Transgenic animals.

12.7 Bio safety issues

12.8 Bio piracy and patents

Unit- V ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

  1. Ecology Environment & Population

13.1 Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche

13.2 Organisms and environment

i) Introduction- biome concept and distribution

ii) Major abdiotic factors- water, light, temperature and soil

iii) Responses to abiotic factors

iv) Adaptations

13.3 Population and ecological adaptations

i) Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation,parasitism

ii) Population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution

14.Ecosystem

14.1 What is ecosystem and its pattern

14.2 Components of ecosystem

14.3 Energy flow

14.4 Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorus)

14.5 Productivity and Decomposition

14.6 Pyramids of number, biomass and energy

14.7 Ecological Succession

14.8 Ecological service: Carbon fixation, Pollination and Oxygen release

  1. Biodiversity And Conservation

15.1 What is biodiversity

15.2 Levels of biodiversity (genetic, species and Ecological) Patterns of biodiversity, Importance and loss of Biodiversity

15.3 Threats to need for biodiversity conservation

15.4 Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data book

15.5 Biodiversity conservation –

a) Biosphere reserve

b) National parks and sanctuaries

16.Environment Issues

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Air Pollution and its control

16.3 Water Pollution and its control

16.4 Agro-Chemicals and their effects

16.5 Solid waste management

16.6 Radioactive waste management

16.7 Green House effect and global warming

16.8 Ozone depletion

16.9 Deforestation

16.10 Three success stories addressing environmental issues – Chipko movement, Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal (DGSM) movement; Silent valley or Amrita Devi – Bishnoi (Jaipur) movements

Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh Board

Syllabus for Uttar Pradesh Board

Class 10;

Science;

Physics

  • Electricity
  • Human Eye and Colourful World
  • Light – Reflection and Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
  • Sources of Energy

Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Carbon and its Compounds
  • Chemical Reactions and Equations
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Periodic Classification of Elements

Biology

  • Control and Coordination
  • Heredity and Evolution
  • How do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Life Processes
  • Management of Natural Resources
  • Our Environment
Mathematics
  • Areas Related to Circles
  • Arithmetic Progressions
  • Circles
  • Constructions
  • Coordinate Geometry
  • Introduction to Trigonometry
  • Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Polynomials
  • Probability
  • Quadratic Equations
  • Real Numbers
  • Some Applications of Trigonometry
  • Statistics
  • Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Triangles

Social Science;

History

  • Nationalism in India
  • Novels, Society and History
  • Print Culture and the Modern World
  • The Age of Industrialisation
  • The Making of a Global World
  • The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
  • The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
  • Work, Life and Leisure

Political Science

  • Challenges to Democracy
  • Democracy and Diversity
  • Federalism
  • Gender, Religion and Caste
  • Outcomes of Democracy
  • Political Parties
  • Popular Struggles and Movements
  • Power Sharing

Geography

  • Agriculture
  • Forest and Wildlife Resources
  • Life Lines of National Economy
  • Manufacturing Industries
  • Minerals and Energy Resources
  • Resources and Development
  • Water Resources

Economics

  • Consumer Rights
  • Development
  • Globalisation and the Indian Economy
  • Money and Credit
  • Sectors of the Indian Economy
English
  • Adjective
  • Articles
  • Conjunction
  • Noun
  • Prepositions
  • Pronoun
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Sentences
  • Tenses
  • Transformation of Sentences
  • Verb
  • Vocabulary
  • Writing

Class 12;

Physics
  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclei
  • Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Wave Optics
Chemistry
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Amines
  • Biomolecules
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Electrochemistry
  • General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Polymers
  • Solutions
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The f and f – block Elements
  • The p – block Elements
  • The Solid State
Mathematics
  • Application of Derivatives
  • Application of Integrals
  • Continuity and Differentiability
  • Determinants
  • Differential Equations
  • Integrals
  • Inverse Trigonometric Functions
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices
  • Probability
  • Relations and Functions
  • Three Dimensional Geometry
  • Vector Algebra
Biology
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Evolution
  • Human Health and Diseases
  • Human Reproduction
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Organism and Populations
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Telangana Board of Secondary Education

Telangana Board of Secondary Education

Syllabus for Telangana Board

Class 10;

Mathematics
  • Real Numbers
  • Sets
  • Polynomials
  • Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Quadratic Equations
  • Progressions
  • Coordinate Geometry
  • Similar Triangles
  • Tangents and Secants to a Circle
  • Mensuration
  • Trigonometry
  • Probability
  • Statistics

Science;

Physics

  • Heat
  • Reflection of Light by Different Surfaces
  • Refraction of Light at Plane Surfaces
  • Refraction of Light at Curved Surface
  • Human Eye and Colourful World
  • Electric Current
  • Electromagnetism

Chemistry

  • Chemical Reactions and Equations
  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Structure of Atom
  • Classification of Elements – The Periodic Table
  • Chemical Bonding
  • Principles of Metallurgy
  • Carbon and its Compounds

Biology

  • Nutrition – Food Supplying System
  • Respiration – The Energy Releasing System
  • Transportation – The Circulatory System
  • Excretion – The Wastage Disposing System
  • Coordination – The Linking System
  • Coordination in Life Processes
  • Reproduction – The Generating System
  • Heredity – From Parent to Progeny
  • Our Environment – Our Concern
  • Natural Resources

Social Science;

History

  • The World Between Wars (1900-1950): Part – I
  • The World Between Wars (1900-1950): Part – II
  • National Liberation Movements in the Colonies
  • National Movement in India – Partition and Independence: 1939-1947
  • Independent India (The First 30 Years – 1947-77)
  • Emerging Political Trends 1977 to 2000
  • Post – war World and India
  • Social Movements in our Times
  • The Movement for the Formation of our Telangana State

Civics

  • People, Settlement and Migration
  • The Making of Independent India’s Constitution
  • Citizens and the Governments

Geography

  • India: Relief Features
  • Climate of India
  • Indian Rivers and Water Resources

Economics

  • Ideas of Development
  • Production and Employment
  • Rampur: A Village Economy
  • Globalisation
  • Food Security and Sustainable Development with Equity
English
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Punctuation
  • Articles
  • Adjective
  • Verb
  • Prepositions
  • Conjunction
  • Tenses
  • Sentences
  • Transformation of Sentences
  • Vocabulary
  • Writing

Class 12

Mathematics
  • Complex Numbers
  • De Moivre’s Theorem
  • Quadratic Equation
  • Theory of Equations
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Partial Fractions
  • Measures of Dispersion
  • Probability
  • Random Variable and Probability Distribution
  • Circle
  • Family of Circles
  • Parabola
  • Ellipse
  • Hyperbola
  • Integration
  • Definite Integrals
  • Differential Equations
Physics
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Current Electricity
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Alternating Current
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
  • Wave Optics
  • Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Atoms
  • Nuclei
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Communication Systems
  • Waves
Chemistry
  • Solid State
  • Solutions
  • Electrochemistry and Chemical Kinetics
  • Surface Chemistry
  • General Principles of Metallurgy
  • p-block elements
  • d and f -Block Elements & Coordination Compounds
  • Polymers
  • Biomolecules
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Organic Compounds Containing C, H and O
  • Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
Biology
  • Transport in Plants
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Enzymes
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
  • Biotechnology and its Application
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Musculo-skeletal System
  • Neural Control and Coordination
  • Endocrine System and Chemical Coordination
  • Immune System
  • Human Reproductive System
  • Reproductive Health
  • Genetics
  • Organic Evolution
  • Applied Biology

 

Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu State Board

Syllabus for Tamil Nadu Board

Class 10;

Science;

Physics

  • Electricity and Energy
  • Laws of Motion and Gravitation
  • Magnetic Effect of Electric Current and Light
  • Measuring Instruments

Chemistry

  • Atoms and Molecules
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Solutions

Biology

  • A Representative of Study of Mammals
  • Conservation of Environment
  • Heredity and Evolution
  • Immune System
  • Life Process
  • Reproduction in Plants
  • Structure and Functions of Human Body Organ System
  • Wastewater Management
Mathematics
  • Algebra
  • Coordinate Geometry
  • Geometry
  • Graphs
  • Matrices
  • Mensuration
  • Practical Geometry
  • Probability
  • Sequences and Series of Real Numbers
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics
  • Trigonometry

Social Science;

History

  • European Union
  • Fascism in Italy (A.D.1922 – A.D.1945)
  • First World War (A.D. 1914 – A.D. 1918) – League of Nations
  • Freedom Movement in India – Phase – I Pre-Gandhian Era (A.D. 1885 – A.D. 1919)
  • Freedom Movement in India – Phase – II Gandhian Era (A.D. 1920 – A.D. 1947)
  • Imperialism – Imperialism in India and China
  • Nazism in Germany (A.D. 1933 – A.D. 1945)
  • Role of Tamil Nadu in the Freedom Movement and Social Transformation
  • Second World War (A.D. 1939 – A.D. 1945)
  • Social and Religious Reforms Movement in the 19th Century
  • The Great Revolt of 1857
  • The United Nations Organization
  • World Between the Two World Wars (A.D. 1919 – A.D. 1939) Economic Depression

Civics

  • Consumer Rights
  • Democracy
  • India and World Peace
  • Unity and Diversity

Geography

  • Disaster Risk Reduction
  • Environmental Issues
  • India – Agriculture
  • India – Climate
  • India – Industries
  • India – Location and Physiography
  • India – Natural Resources
  • Remote Sensing
  • Trade, Transport and Communication

Economics

  • Economy and Government
  • Functions of Modern Welfare State
  • Introduction of National Income
  • Methods and Difficulties in the Calculation of National Income
  • Public Sector After British Rule
  • Socio – Economic Development in Tamilnadu
English
  • Adjective
  • Conjunction
  • Pronoun
  • Punctuation
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Sentences
  • Tenses
  • Transformation of Sentences
  • Verb
  • Vocabulary
  • Writing

Class 12;

Physics
  • Electrostatics
  • Capacitors
  • Current Electricity
  • Effects of Electric Current
  • Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current
  • Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics
  • Atomic Physics
  • Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Relativity
  • Nuclear Physics
  • Semiconductor Devices and their Applications
  • Communication Systems
Chemistry
  • Atomic Structure – II
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbonyl Compounds
  • Carboxylic Acids
  • Chemical Equilibrium – II
  • Chemical Kinetics – II
  • Chemistry in Action
  • Coordination Compounds and Bio-coordination Compounds
  • d-block Elements
  • Electrochemistry – I
  • Electrochemistry – II
  • Ethers
  • f-block Elements
  • Hydroxy Derivatives
  • Isomerism in Organic Chemistry
  • Nuclear Chemistry
  • Organic Nitrogen Compounds
  • p-block Elements
  • Periodic Classification – II
  • Solid State – II
  • Surface Chemistry
  • Thermodynamics – II
Mathematics
  • Application of Matrices and Determinants
  • Vector Algebra
  • Complex Number
  • Analytical Geometry
  • Differential Calculus: Application I
  • Differential Calculus: Application II
  • Integral Calculus and its Applications
  • Differential Equations
  • Discrete Mathematics
  • Probability Distribution
Biology
  • Biochemistry – Biological Oxidation
  • Biochemistry – Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • Biochemistry – Cell Membrane
  • Biochemistry – Digestion
  • Biochemistry – Enzyme Kinetics
  • Biochemistry – Immunology
  • Biochemistry – Inborn Error of Metabolism
  • Biochemistry – Nucleic Acid Metabolism
  • Biochemistry – Protein Metabolism
  • Botany – Biology in Human Welfare
  • Botany – Biotechnology
  • Botany – Cell Biology and Genetics
  • Botany – Plant Anatomy
  • Botany – Plant Physiology
  • Botany – Taxonomy of Angiosperms
  • Microbiology – Environmental, Food and Industrial Microbiology
  • Microbiology – General Microbiology
  • Microbiology – Immunology
  • Microbiology – Medical Bacteriology
  • Microbiology – Medical Parasitology, Mycology, Virology and Zoonosis
  • Zoology – Applied Biology
  • Zoology – Environmental Science
  • Zoology – Human Physiology
  • Zoology – Immunology
  • Zoology – Microbiology
  • Zoology – Modern Genetics
  • Zoology – Theories of Evolution

 

 

 

Rajasthan

Board of Secondary Education Rajasthan

Syllabus for Rajasthan Board

Class 10;

Mathematics
  • Vedic Mathematics
  • Real Numbers
  • Polynomials
  • Linear Equation and Inequalities in Two Variables
  • Arithmetic Progressions
  • Trigonometric Ratios
  • Trigonometric Identities
  • Height and Distance
  • Coordinate Geometry
  • Locus
  • Similarity
  • Circle
  • Circle and Tangent
  • Constructions
  • Circumference and Area of a Circle
  • Surface Area and Volume
  • Measures of Central Tendency
  • Probability
  • Road Safety Education

Science;

Physics

  • Light
  • Work, Energy and Power
  • Electric Current
  • Structure of Earth
  • Search of Life in Space
  • Indian Scientist: Biography and Achievements

Chemistry

  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemical Reaction and Catalyst
  • Atomic Theory, Periodic Classification and Properties of Elements
  • Carbon and its Compounds

Biology

  • Food And Human Health
  • Human System
  • Genetics
  • Immunity and Blood Groups
  • Biodiversity and its Conservation

Social Science;

History

  • Glorious India – From the Beginning to 1206 CE
  • India During the Period of Struggle – 1206 CE-1757 CE
  • Retaliation and Struggle of the British Empire
  • World History

Civics

  • Democracy
  • Central Government
  • State Government
  • Road Safety – Education

Geography

  • Water Resources
  • Agriculture in India
  • Mineral and Energy Resources
  • Manufacturing Industries
  • Transport and Communication
  • Sanitation and Solid Waste Management

Economics

  • Human Resources
  • Economic Concepts and Planning
  • Characteristics and Unique Trends of Indian Economy
  • Challenges to Indian Economy
  • Currency and Financial Institutions
  • Consumer Awareness and Legal Awareness and Right to Information
English
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Noun
  • Adjective
  • Verb
  • Adverb
  • Conjunction
  • Tenses
  • Sentences
  • Transformation of Sentences
  • Vocabulary
  • Writing

Class 12;

Mathematics
  • Relations and Functions
  • Inverse Trigonometric Functions
  • Matrices
  • Determinants
  • Continuity and Differentiability
  • Application of Derivatives
  • Integrals
  • Application of Integrals
  • Differential Equations
  • Vector Algebra
  • Three Dimensional Geometry
  • Linear Programming
  • Probability
Physics
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Current Electricity
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Alternating Current
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
  • Wave Optics
  • Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Atoms
  • Nuclei
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Communication Systems
Chemistry
  • The Solid State
  • Solutions
  • Electrochemistry
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Surface Chemistry
  • General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • The p – Block Elements
  • The d and f – Block Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Amines
  • Biomolecules
  • Polymers
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
Biology
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Human Reproduction
  • Reproductive Health
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Evolution
  • Human Health and Diseases
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Organism and Populations
  • Ecosystem
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Environmental Issues
 

Punjab

Punjab School Education Board

Syllabus for Punjab Board

Class 10;

Mathematics
  • Real Numbers
  • Polynomials
  • Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Quadratic Equations
  • Arithmetic Progressions
  • Triangles
  • Coordinate Geometry
  • Introduction to Trigonometry
  • Some Applications of Trigonometry
  • Circles
  • Constructions
  • Areas Related to Circles
  • Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Statistics
  • Probability

Science;

Physics

  • Light – Reflection and Refraction
  • Human Eye and Colourful World
  • Electricity
  • Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
  • Sources of Energy

Chemistry

  • Chemical Reactions and Equations
  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Carbon and its Compounds
  • Periodic Classification of Elements

Biology

  • Life Processes
  • Control and Coordination
  • How do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Heredity and Evolution
  • Our Environment
  • Management of Natural Resources

Social Science;

History

  • Physical Features of the Punjab and their Influence on its History
  • Political and Social Conditions of Punjab Before Guru Nanak Dev Ji
  • Guru Nanak Dev Ji and His Teachings
  • Contribution of Sikh Gurus from Guru Angad Dev Ji to Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
  • Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Life, Creation of Khalsa, and His Personality
  • Banda Bahadur and the Sikh Misals
  • Ranjit Singh: Early Life, Achievements, and Anglo – Sikh Relations
  • The Anglo – Sikh Wars and Annexation of the Punjab
  • Punjab’s Contribution Towards Struggle for Freedom

Civics

  • Features of the Indian Constitution
  • The Central Government
  • The State Government
  • Indian Democracy at Work
  • Indian Foreign Policy and United Nations

Geography

  • India – An Introduction
  • Land
  • The Climate
  • Natural Vegetation, Wildlife and Soils
  • Water Resources and Irrigation Projects
  • Land Utilisation and Agriculture
  • Mineral Resources
  • Means of Transport and Communication
  • Population

Economics

  • Basic Concepts
  • Infrastructure of the Indian Economy
  • Agricultural Development in India
  • Industrial Development in India
  • India’s Foreign Trade
  • Economic Planning in India
English
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Punctuation
  • Noun
  • Articles
  • Adjective
  • Pronoun
  • Verb
  • Adverb
  • Prepositions
  • Conjunction
  • Tenses
  • Sentences
  • Transformation of Sentences
  • Vocabulary
  • Writing

Class 12;

Mathematics
  • Relations and Functions
  • Inverse Trigonometric Functions
  • Matrices
  • Determinants
  • Continuity and Differentiability
  • Application of Derivatives
  • Integrals
  • Application of Integrals
  • Differential Equations
  • Vector Algebra
  • Three Dimensional Geometry
  • Linear Programming
  • Probability
Physics
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Current Electricity
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Alternating Current
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
  • Wave Optics
  • Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Atoms
  • Nuclei
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Communication Systems
Chemistry
  • The Solid State
  • Solutions
  • Electrochemistry
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Surface Chemistry
  • General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • The p – Block elements
  • The d and f – Block Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Amines
  • Biomolecules
  • Polymers
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
Biology
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Human Reproduction
  • Reproductive Health
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Evolution
  • Human Health and Diseases
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Organism and Populations
  • Ecosystem
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Environmental Issues

Maharashtra

Maharashtra State Board

Syllabus for Maharashtra Board

Class 10

English
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Noun
  • Adjective
  • Verb
  • Adverb
  • Conjunction
  • Tenses
  • Sentences
  • Transformation of Sentences
  • Vocabulary
  • Writing
Mathematics
  • Arithmetic Progression
  • Quadratic Equations
  • Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Probability
  • Statistics – I
  • Statistics – II
  • Similarity
  • Circle
  • Geometric Constructions
  • Trigonometry
  • Coordinate Geometry
  • Mensuration

Science;

Physics

  • The Electric Spark
  • All About Electromagnetism
  • Wonders of Light – Part I
  • Wonders of Light – Part II

Chemistry

  • School of Elements
  • The Magic of Chemical Reactions
  • The Acid Base Chemistry
  • Understanding Metals and Non-metals
  • Amazing World of Carbon Compounds

Biology

  • Life’s Internal Secrets
  • The Regulators of Life
  • The Life Cycle
  • Mapping Our Genes
  • Striving for Better Environment

Social Science;

History

  • The Imperialism
  • 20th Century Age of Conflict
  • Emancipation of Asia and Africa
  • World After Second World War

Civics

  • Democracy
  • Political Parties
  • Democracy and Diversity
  • Challenges Before Democracy

Geography

  • The Physical Divisions of India
  • The Northern Mountain Region
  • The Northern Plain Region – Desert
  • The Northern Plain Region – Western (Punjab and Haryana)
  • The Northern Plain Region – Central, Delta and Eastern
  • The Peninsular Plateau Region – Central Highlands
  • The Peninsular Plateau Region
  • The Ghats, Coastal Plains and Islands
  • Practical Geography

Economics

  • Introduction of an Economy
  • The Basic Problems of an Economy and Solution
  • Inflation
  • The Public Distribution System and Consumer Protection

Class 12;

Mathematics
  • Mathematical Logic
  • Matrices
  • Trigonometric Functions
  • Pair of Straight Line
  • Vectors
  • Three Dimensional Geometry
  • Lines
  • Plane
  • LPP
  • Continuity
  • Differentiation
  • Application of Derivatives
  • Integration
  • Definite Integrals
  • Application of Definite Integrals
  • Differential Equation
  • Probability Distribution
  • Binomial Distribution

Physics

  • Circular Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Rotational Motion
  • Oscillations
  • Elasticity
  • Surface Tension
  • Wave Motion
  • Stationary Waves
  • Kinetic Theory of Gases and Radiation
  • Wave Theory of Light
  • Interference and Diffraction
  • Electrostatics
  • Current Electricity
  • Magnetic Effect of Electric Current
  • Magnetism
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei
  • Semiconductors
  • Communication System
Chemistry
  • Solid State
  • Solution and Colligative Properties
  • Chemical Thermodynamics and Energetics
  • Electrochemistry
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • p-block Element
  • d and f-block Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Halogen Derivatives of Alkanes and Arenes
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Compounds Containing Nitrogen
  • Biomolecules
  • Polymers
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
Biology
  • Genetic Basis of Inheritance
  • Gene: Its Nature, Expression and Regulation
  • Biotechnology: Process and Application
  • Enhancement in Food Production
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Photosynthesis
  • Respiration
  • Reproduction in Plants
  • Organisms and Environment – I
  • Origin and Evolution of Life
  • Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
  • Genetic Engineering and Genomics
  • Human Health and Diseases
  • Animal Husbandry
  • Circulation
  • Excretion and Osmoregulation
  • Control and Coordination
  • Human Reproduction
  • Organisms and Environment – II